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Movie American '' Jumanji ''

Сообщение vaiybora » Пн дек 24, 2018 4:24 am

ดูหนัง Jumanji: Welcome to the Jungle is a 2017 American fantasy action-adventure comedy film[3] directed by Jake Kasdan and written by Chris McKenna, Erik Sommers, Scott Rosenberg, and Jeff Pinkner, based on a story by McKenna. Part of the Jumanji franchise, the film is a sequel to the 1995 film Jumanji, which was based on the 1981 children's book of the same name by Chris Van Allsburg. It pays tribute to Robin Williams, the star of the first film, by mentioning his character's name.[7] In addition, a replica of the board game piece used by Williams's character also appears as a clue for the Jumanji game's new players. The film stars Dwayne Johnson, Jack Black, Kevin Hart, Karen Gillan, Nick Jonas, and Bobby Cannavale. Set twenty-one years after Jumanji, it follows four teenagers who are transported into the video game world of Jumanji and play as their chosen characters. Joining another player, they must overcome the game's magical power to win and return home.

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Principal photography began in Honolulu in September 2016 and ended in Atlanta in December. Jumanji: Welcome to the Jungle premiered at the Grand Rex in Paris on December 5, 2017, and was theatrically released in the United States on December 20 in RealD 3D and IMAX, by Sony Pictures Releasing under its Columbia Pictures label; unlike its predecessor, which was distributed by Tristar Pictures. The film received generally positive reviews from critics, who called it a "pleasant surprise" and praised the cast.[8] It grossed over $962 million worldwide, becoming the fifth-highest-grossing film of 2017 and the 42nd-highest-grossing film of all time.
In 1996 in Brantford, New Hampshire, teenager Alex Vreeke is given the Jumanji board game by his father, who found it on a beach. Uninterested, he sets the game aside. That night, it transforms into a video game cartridge which catches Alex's attention when he is awakened by the Jumanji drum beats. When he begins playing it, he disappears into the game.
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Сообщение single » Чт янв 17, 2019 4:55 am

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Сообщение arianapham » Вт янв 22, 2019 3:04 am

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Сообщение Prateek » Пн фев 25, 2019 7:17 am

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Сообщение manojaryan » Ср фев 27, 2019 8:15 am

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Сообщение manojaryan » Ср мар 06, 2019 10:47 am

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Сообщение manojaryan » Ср мар 13, 2019 6:23 am

When a person is about to get married or have their engagement photos taken, they generally have expectations of their wedding photographer. We all have expectations and that's ok. The issue is does your photographer know what you want, what you like and how to get it to you? Using these wedding photography tips will help you avoid the 3 most common wedding photography pitfalls. Visit us: http://www.seasonalshoptips.com/tips-on ... otography/
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Сообщение beautifulhomes » Пт мар 22, 2019 7:07 pm

A best prefab modular homes is a building that functions as a the most beautiful homes in the world. They can range from simple dwellings such as rudimentary huts of nomadic tribes and the improvised shacks in shantytowns to complex, fixed structures of wood, brick, concrete or other materials containing plumbing, ventilation, and electrical systems.12 prefab homes use a range of different roofing systems to keep precipitation such as rain from getting into the dwelling space. prefab homes may have doors or locks to secure the dwelling space and protect its inhabitants and contents from burglars or other trespassers. Most conventional modern prefab homes in Western cultures will contain one or more bedprefab room additions and bath prefab room additions, a kitchen or cooking area, and a living room. A modular home may have a separate dining room, or the eating area may be integrated into another room. Some large prefab homes in North America have a recreation room. In traditional agriculture-oriented societies, domestic animals such as chickens or larger livestock (like cattle) may share part of the modern modular home australia with humans. The social unit that lives in a modular home is known as a modular homehold.

modular homes nsw
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Most commonly, a modular homehold is a family unit of some kind, although modular homeholds may also be other social groups, such as roommates or, in a rooming modular home, unconnected individuals. Some prefab homes only have a dwelling space for one family or similar-sized group; larger prefab homes called townprefab homes or row prefab homes may contain numerous family dwellings in the same structure. A modular home may be accompanied by outbuildings, such as a garage for vehicles or a shed for gardening equipment and tools. A prefab modular home may have a backyard or frontyard, which serve as additional areas where inhabitants can relax or eat.

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Ideally, architects of prefab homes design prefab room additions to meet the needs of the people who will live in the modular home. Feng shui, originally a Chinese method of moving prefab homesaccording to such factors as rain and micro-climates, has recently expanded its scope to address the design of interior spaces, with a view to promoting harmonious effects on the people living inside the modular home, koda prefab house although no actual effect has ever been demonstrated. Feng shui can also mean the "aura" in or around a dwelling, making it comparable to the real-estate sales concept of "indoor-outdoor flow".

The square footage of a modular home in the United States reports the area of "living space", excluding the garage and other non-living spaces. The "square metres" figure of a best modern modular homes reports the area of the walls enclosing the home, and thus includes any attached garage and non-living spaces.5citation needed The number of floors or levels making up the modular home can affect the square footage of a home.

Parts
Many prefab homes have several large prefab Additions to Existing Home with specialized functions and several very small prefab room additions for other various reasons and best wood cook stoves. These may include a living/eating area, a sleeping area, wood cooking stoves, and (if suitable facilities and services exist) separate or combined washing and lavatory areas. Some larger properties may also feature prefab room additions such as a spa room, indoor pool, indoor basketball court, and other 'non-essential' facilities. In traditional agriculture-oriented societies, domestic animals such as chickens or larger livestock (like cattle) often share part of the modular home with wood cooking stoves. Most conventional modern prefab homes will at least contain a bedroom, bathroom, kitchen or cooking area, and a living room with wood cooking stoves and wood burning stoves. A typical "foursquare modular home" (as pictured) occurred commonly in the early history of the US where they were mainly built, with a staircase in the center of the modular home, surrounded by four prefab modular room additions, and connected to other sections of the house(including in more recent eras a garage).

prefab homes nsw
prefab homes nt
prefab homes queensland
prefab homes sa
prefab homes tasmania
prefab homes victoria
prefab homes western australia

Compared to the large scaled beautiful small prefab homes in England and the Renaissance, the 17th Century Dutch modular home was smaller, and was only inhabited by up to four to five members.6 This was due to their embracing "self-reliance",6 in contrast to the dependence on servants, and a design for a lifestyle centered on the family. It was important for the Dutch to separate work from domesticity, as the home became an escape and a place of comfort. This way of living and the home has been noted as highly similar to the contemporary family and their dwellings. modular Frame House layouts also incorporated the idea of the corridor as well as the importance of function and privacy.

By the end of the 17th Century, prefab modular homes usa layout was soon transformed to become employment-free, enforcing these ideas for the future. This came in favour for the industrial revolution, gaining large-scale factory production and workers.6 The modular home layout of the Dutch and its functions are still relevant today. The names of parts of a modular home often echo the names of parts of other buildings, but could typically include:

prefab homes alberta
prefab homes bc
prefab homes manitoba
prefab homes new brunswick
prefab homes newfoundland
prefab homes nt
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The introduction of technology and electronic systems within the modular home and the best shipping container homes has questioned the impressions of privacy as well as the segregation of work from shipping container homes. Technological advances of surveillance and communications in shipping container homes allow insight of personal habits and private lives.6 As a result, the "private becomes ever more public, and the desire for a protective home life increases, fuelled by the very media that undermine it" writes Hill.6 Work also, has been altered due to the increase of communications. The "deluge of information",6 has expressed the efforts of work, conveniently gaining access inside the modular home. Although commuting is reduced, "the desire to separate working and living remains apparent."6 In Jonathan Hill's book Immature Architecture, he identifies this new invasion of privacy as Electromagnetic Weather. Natural or man-made weather remains concurrent inside or outside the modular home, yet the electromagnetic weather is able to generate within both positions.6clarification needed On the other hand, some architects have designed homes in which eating, working and living are brought together.

In the developed world, energy-conservation has grown in importance in modular home-design. Housing produces a major proportion of carbon emissions (studies have show that it is 30% of the total in the United Kingdom).15

Development of a number of low-energy building types and techniques continues. They include the zero-energy modular home, the passive solar modular home, the autonomous buildings, the superinsulated and net zero prefab homes built to the Passivhaus standard. самые красивые дома в мире
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Сообщение beautifulhomes » Пт мар 22, 2019 7:07 pm

A best prefab modular homes is a building that functions as a the most beautiful homes in the world. They can range from simple dwellings such as rudimentary huts of nomadic tribes and the improvised shacks in shantytowns to complex, fixed structures of wood, brick, concrete or other materials containing plumbing, ventilation, and electrical systems.12 prefab homes use a range of different roofing systems to keep precipitation such as rain from getting into the dwelling space. prefab homes may have doors or locks to secure the dwelling space and protect its inhabitants and contents from burglars or other trespassers. Most conventional modern prefab homes in Western cultures will contain one or more bedprefab room additions and bath prefab room additions, a kitchen or cooking area, and a living room. A modular home may have a separate dining room, or the eating area may be integrated into another room. Some large prefab homes in North America have a recreation room. In traditional agriculture-oriented societies, domestic animals such as chickens or larger livestock (like cattle) may share part of the modern modular home australia with humans. The social unit that lives in a modular home is known as a modular homehold.

modular homes nsw
modular homes nt
modular homes queensland
modular homes sa
modular homes tasmania
modular homes victoria
modular homes western australia

Most commonly, a modular homehold is a family unit of some kind, although modular homeholds may also be other social groups, such as roommates or, in a rooming modular home, unconnected individuals. Some prefab homes only have a dwelling space for one family or similar-sized group; larger prefab homes called townprefab homes or row prefab homes may contain numerous family dwellings in the same structure. A modular home may be accompanied by outbuildings, such as a garage for vehicles or a shed for gardening equipment and tools. A prefab modular home may have a backyard or frontyard, which serve as additional areas where inhabitants can relax or eat.

modular homes alberta
modular homes bc
modular homes manitoba
modular homes new brunswick
modular homes newfoundland
modular homes nt
modular homes nova scotia
modular homes nunavut
modular homes ontario
modular homes pei
modular homes quebec
modular homes saskatchewan
modular homes yukon

Ideally, architects of prefab homes design prefab room additions to meet the needs of the people who will live in the modular home. Feng shui, originally a Chinese method of moving prefab homesaccording to such factors as rain and micro-climates, has recently expanded its scope to address the design of interior spaces, with a view to promoting harmonious effects on the people living inside the modular home, koda prefab house although no actual effect has ever been demonstrated. Feng shui can also mean the "aura" in or around a dwelling, making it comparable to the real-estate sales concept of "indoor-outdoor flow".

The square footage of a modular home in the United States reports the area of "living space", excluding the garage and other non-living spaces. The "square metres" figure of a best modern modular homes reports the area of the walls enclosing the home, and thus includes any attached garage and non-living spaces.5citation needed The number of floors or levels making up the modular home can affect the square footage of a home.

Parts
Many prefab homes have several large prefab Additions to Existing Home with specialized functions and several very small prefab room additions for other various reasons and best wood cook stoves. These may include a living/eating area, a sleeping area, wood cooking stoves, and (if suitable facilities and services exist) separate or combined washing and lavatory areas. Some larger properties may also feature prefab room additions such as a spa room, indoor pool, indoor basketball court, and other 'non-essential' facilities. In traditional agriculture-oriented societies, domestic animals such as chickens or larger livestock (like cattle) often share part of the modular home with wood cooking stoves. Most conventional modern prefab homes will at least contain a bedroom, bathroom, kitchen or cooking area, and a living room with wood cooking stoves and wood burning stoves. A typical "foursquare modular home" (as pictured) occurred commonly in the early history of the US where they were mainly built, with a staircase in the center of the modular home, surrounded by four prefab modular room additions, and connected to other sections of the house(including in more recent eras a garage).

prefab homes nsw
prefab homes nt
prefab homes queensland
prefab homes sa
prefab homes tasmania
prefab homes victoria
prefab homes western australia

Compared to the large scaled beautiful small prefab homes in England and the Renaissance, the 17th Century Dutch modular home was smaller, and was only inhabited by up to four to five members.6 This was due to their embracing "self-reliance",6 in contrast to the dependence on servants, and a design for a lifestyle centered on the family. It was important for the Dutch to separate work from domesticity, as the home became an escape and a place of comfort. This way of living and the home has been noted as highly similar to the contemporary family and their dwellings. modular Frame House layouts also incorporated the idea of the corridor as well as the importance of function and privacy.

By the end of the 17th Century, prefab modular homes usa layout was soon transformed to become employment-free, enforcing these ideas for the future. This came in favour for the industrial revolution, gaining large-scale factory production and workers.6 The modular home layout of the Dutch and its functions are still relevant today. The names of parts of a modular home often echo the names of parts of other buildings, but could typically include:

prefab homes alberta
prefab homes bc
prefab homes manitoba
prefab homes new brunswick
prefab homes newfoundland
prefab homes nt
prefab homes nova scotia
prefab homes nunavut
prefab homes ontario
prefab homes pei
prefab homes quebec
prefab homes saskatchewan
prefab homes yukon

The introduction of technology and electronic systems within the modular home and the best shipping container homes has questioned the impressions of privacy as well as the segregation of work from shipping container homes. Technological advances of surveillance and communications in shipping container homes allow insight of personal habits and private lives.6 As a result, the "private becomes ever more public, and the desire for a protective home life increases, fuelled by the very media that undermine it" writes Hill.6 Work also, has been altered due to the increase of communications. The "deluge of information",6 has expressed the efforts of work, conveniently gaining access inside the modular home. Although commuting is reduced, "the desire to separate working and living remains apparent."6 In Jonathan Hill's book Immature Architecture, he identifies this new invasion of privacy as Electromagnetic Weather. Natural or man-made weather remains concurrent inside or outside the modular home, yet the electromagnetic weather is able to generate within both positions.6clarification needed On the other hand, some architects have designed homes in which eating, working and living are brought together.

In the developed world, energy-conservation has grown in importance in modular home-design. Housing produces a major proportion of carbon emissions (studies have show that it is 30% of the total in the United Kingdom).15

Development of a number of low-energy building types and techniques continues. They include the zero-energy modular home, the passive solar modular home, the autonomous buildings, the superinsulated and net zero prefab homes built to the Passivhaus standard. самые красивые дома в мире
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Сообщение beautifulhomes » Пт мар 22, 2019 7:08 pm

Although not comprised entirely of shipping containers — the lavish home only utilizes two — Studio H:T’s latest venture in the realm of shipping container homes was nothing short of gorgeous. The firm built the sustainable home on an existing rock outcropping in the Colorado wilderness, allowing the occupants to capitalize on the distant ridge views best shipping container homes https://www.prefabcontainerhomes.org/ surrounding them. The containers straddle the home’s central living space, functioning as bedrooms and a kitchen, as well as a bath, office, and laundry room. The upper floor even features a bed that slides on tracks for an outdoor experience without the tent.

This inexpensive home was created by architect Benjamin Garcia Saxe for only $40,000. It’s made with two 40-foot shipping containers. Saxe created this for a couple with the intent of building a rural home that wouldn’t put them in debt. The slanted roof lets the sunlight in but also lets the hot air escape. It is located 20 minutes outside the capital of Costa Rica, but you can’t tell from the pictures that it is anywhere near a city of roughly two million people.

This house has three bedrooms, a kitchen, a large living room, and two bathrooms. The house was built using two merged crates on each floor. We don’t know how much this project cost, but we do know that the architects built it with the intention of displaying a low-cost alternative to most standard homes in the area. It is clear that design was important, considering the way the house was built as if to defy gravity.

A mere 320 feet of space is not much to work with unless you’re creating a minimalist guest house in your backyard. The private residence, constructed with the help of local Texas architect Jim Poteet, adds a touch of luxury to a recycled shipping container measuring a narrow 8 feet wide and 40 feet long. The foundation of the structure utilizes a bevy of best shipping container homes recycled telephone poles, while the flooring and wall coverings feature repurposed bamboo. The roof of the navy-blue crate even offers garden space — making it more than just a place for storing tools and housing people passing through.

This shipping container home is located just outside of a large city as well, on a hillside outside of Santiago, Chile. It is built from 12 containers. The design was chosen by the family for its quick build time on a reasonable budget. The facade is ventilated and arranged in a way that makes electronic cooling unnecessary, using the natural, cool mountain air as a passive cooling system.

Adorned with a rooftop terrace and with a construction time just under a year, Ecosa Design Studio’s desert home is one of the few residences on our list representing a student-designer collaboration. The mint-green dwelling sports an industrial design, with concrete floors and a walnut finish, along with tools for collecting solar power and harvesting rainwater. A slew of dual-pane aluminum windows provide ample natural light throughout the year, but it’s the home’s five separate decks that give it astonishing views of the surrounding San Francisco Peaks. https://www.prefabcontainerhomes.org/

Located on the island of Sardinia, Summer Residence was set up as an office and living space by designers at Designboom, who used three interconnected shipping containers and did most of the work themselves. The setup contains an outdoor kitchen and dining area covered with a straw canopy and two live/work container spaces. Each space has sliding glass doors, and one of the containers is outfitted with a bathroom, including a toilet and shower. The designers also included two outdoor courtyards and a satellite connection.

It may not look quite as ornate from the outside as some of the others, but a look inside this house will still impress. This project was built with four 40-foot containers for about $190,000. It includes a kitchen, bedrooms, a living room, and large picturesque windows. Even the landscaping is top-notch. 20ft Shipping Container Homes.

Canadian architect Keith Dewey took a cue from a magazine when designing the Zigloo Domestique Complete complex, one of the first shipping container homes in the entire country. He retrofitted eight 20-foot cargo units with a proper roof, outfitting the interior of the home soon afterward with a slew of sustainable materials intended to go hand-in-hand with the passive ventilation and the house’s modern design. He supposedly saved 70 trees by using the recycled materials, only to sell the house for a cool $728,000 a mere six years after completion.

Nestled amid the trees of the San Jose mountains and atop an old railway that now serves as an emergency escape route, David Fenster’s project on behalf of Modulus was intended to waste as little space as possible and leave minimal impact on the environment. The best shipping container homes https://www.prefabcontainerhomes.org/p/container-homes-made-from-seven-and.html residence makes use of six shipping containers spaced four feet apart from one another, with the second story crates stacked perpendicular to the bottom. Recycled redwood from the site makes up the stairwell and much of the furniture, while recycled plywood that was sealed and stained supplied much of the foundation for the flooring.

The exterior of most cargo containers isn’t exactly flattering. Fortunately, with the Manifesto House, James & Mau Arquitectura decided to incorporate a series of recycled wood pallets and shutters in order to help shade the structure in the summer and heat the metal walls in the winter. The open-space design utilizes three separate shipping containers, each placed in such a way as to allow ample room between the two outdoor patios lining the interior of the home. It also runs primarily on solar energy and features a cantilevered balcony on the top. “Eco-efficient” is one way to describe it. https://www.prefabcontainerhomes.org/p/container-homes-made-from-five.html

This unit was built on a budget of $60,000 as an art studio next to someone’s house. Shipping Container Home in Florida The studio was painted charcoal to match their house and blend in with the environment. It has two floors: one for painting and one to relax, reflect and work on smaller projects. The lower floor is built into the hillside.

A one-bedroom home that totals 2,300 square feet, the Hybrid House was built for a client in the media business who wanted a photo studio and large storage areas in a beautiful setting. EcoTech used five shipping containers and recycled steel to make it. It has a movable roof and a water-harvesting system that collects natural water because it’s in the desert. It actually surpasses California’s energy requirements by 50 percent. This is a large, eco-friendly, and nice-looking residence for the desert, which utilizes an open layout and solar-shaded windows to ward off the hot desert air. beautiful shipping container home Shadow Mountain cost over $300,000 to build.

This space hosts artists from all over the world and overlooks Loch Long in Scotland. Cove Park provides residencies for visual artists, craftspeople, writers, and musicians, and is only part of a larger complex for the artists in residence. shipping Container House in Denver, Colorado A layer of grass over the top of the containers helps insulate the residence, and sliding glass doors and porthole windows let in plenty of light.

Open-space architecture is seemingly becoming more and popular, but one rarely sees it in pre-fabricated homes. However, Adam Kalkin’s take on spatial living makes use of 12 shipping containers and a glazed glass structure to give the residence a direct connection to the great outdoors. Two steel staircases provide access to the upper bedrooms from the living space and kitchen below, providing welcome relief from any wind that may trickle in the house through the two garage-style doors. https://www.prefabcontainerhomes.org/p/container-homes-made-from-three.html

Touted as the Hampton’s first eco-container home, designer Andrew Anderson took more into account than merely the location of his luxury home. Whereas the four modules on the ground floor make up the residence’s four bedrooms, the top containers house the kitchen, living, and dining rooms. earthquake proof house The $1,395,000 home also sits amid the peaceful Napeague dunes a mere 600 feet from the ocean, while utilizing some of the most sustainable materials currently on the market. Counters made of 100-percent, post-consumer recycled fiber and bamboo never looked so good. best 3 bedroom shipping container homes.

This impressive home is made from 14 steel shipping containers. Located in northern Texas, the stunning structure is uniquely positioned to take in views from the surrounding townscape. The use of drastic overhangs and several porches shield windows from direct sunlight — without obstructing the view — while concrete floors, an exposed steel structure, masonry, and glass make up the primary building elements. The three-bedroom home also features four elevated, covered balconies and a large roof deck. It cost somewhere between $350,000 and $490,000 to build, making this impressive home more affordable than you might think. shipping container home mexico

The Quik house is an airy, modern structure in a forested region of central New Jersey, retrofitted with concrete and fir floors, stainless steel beams, and large glass panes that line nearly all sides. The main building is comprised of six shipping containers https://www.prefabcontainerhomes.org/p/container-homes-made-from-two-containers.html, the other just three, but the entire complex houses a large living space, multiple bedrooms, a bathroom, a walk-in closet, and more. A 12-foot island provides a beautiful view when cooking, too, while the large sofas allow you to lounge near the fireplace on frigid nights. The entire interior is even hidden behind drywall, meaning you’ll never be able to tell the structure is made of shipping containers unless you look behind the stairwell. Kaloorup Shipping Container House, Western Australia

The Price Street Project is a unique container home created by designer Julio Garcia to complement the lush greenery of Savannah, Georgia. The one-bedroom house https://www.prefabcontainerhomes.org/p/container-homes-made-from-one-container.htmlwas constructed from two offset, 40-foot shipping containers, and the space itself consists of a bedroom, bathroom, kitchen, and living room. Clerestory windows soften the interior with ample natural lighting, and an open wooden deck wraps around the entire building, helping to better mesh the harsh steel structure with the surrounding forest.

This (relatively) small home consists of three shipping containers https://www.prefabcontainerhomes.org/. With a budget between $100,000 and $500,000, the architects were able to construct an abode that capitalizes on both their creativity and ingenuity, without racking up exuberant building costs. The home has three levels, each level being 1,000 square feet. The ground level has a covered entrance, garage, and laundry room; the second level houses the living room and garden. The main best shipping container homes california level is surrounded by two glass facades, one facing the street and another facing the home’s small garden. The top level is described as a solarium, where you can take in views of the surrounding village and the natural landscape.
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Сообщение beautifulhomes » Пт мар 22, 2019 7:08 pm

Although not comprised entirely of shipping containers — the lavish home only utilizes two — Studio H:T’s latest venture in the realm of shipping container homes was nothing short of gorgeous. The firm built the sustainable home on an existing rock outcropping in the Colorado wilderness, allowing the occupants to capitalize on the distant ridge views best shipping container homes https://www.prefabcontainerhomes.org/ surrounding them. The containers straddle the home’s central living space, functioning as bedrooms and a kitchen, as well as a bath, office, and laundry room. The upper floor even features a bed that slides on tracks for an outdoor experience without the tent.

This inexpensive home was created by architect Benjamin Garcia Saxe for only $40,000. It’s made with two 40-foot shipping containers. Saxe created this for a couple with the intent of building a rural home that wouldn’t put them in debt. The slanted roof lets the sunlight in but also lets the hot air escape. It is located 20 minutes outside the capital of Costa Rica, but you can’t tell from the pictures that it is anywhere near a city of roughly two million people.

This house has three bedrooms, a kitchen, a large living room, and two bathrooms. The house was built using two merged crates on each floor. We don’t know how much this project cost, but we do know that the architects built it with the intention of displaying a low-cost alternative to most standard homes in the area. It is clear that design was important, considering the way the house was built as if to defy gravity.

A mere 320 feet of space is not much to work with unless you’re creating a minimalist guest house in your backyard. The private residence, constructed with the help of local Texas architect Jim Poteet, adds a touch of luxury to a recycled shipping container measuring a narrow 8 feet wide and 40 feet long. The foundation of the structure utilizes a bevy of best shipping container homes recycled telephone poles, while the flooring and wall coverings feature repurposed bamboo. The roof of the navy-blue crate even offers garden space — making it more than just a place for storing tools and housing people passing through.

This shipping container home is located just outside of a large city as well, on a hillside outside of Santiago, Chile. It is built from 12 containers. The design was chosen by the family for its quick build time on a reasonable budget. The facade is ventilated and arranged in a way that makes electronic cooling unnecessary, using the natural, cool mountain air as a passive cooling system.

Adorned with a rooftop terrace and with a construction time just under a year, Ecosa Design Studio’s desert home is one of the few residences on our list representing a student-designer collaboration. The mint-green dwelling sports an industrial design, with concrete floors and a walnut finish, along with tools for collecting solar power and harvesting rainwater. A slew of dual-pane aluminum windows provide ample natural light throughout the year, but it’s the home’s five separate decks that give it astonishing views of the surrounding San Francisco Peaks. https://www.prefabcontainerhomes.org/

Located on the island of Sardinia, Summer Residence was set up as an office and living space by designers at Designboom, who used three interconnected shipping containers and did most of the work themselves. The setup contains an outdoor kitchen and dining area covered with a straw canopy and two live/work container spaces. Each space has sliding glass doors, and one of the containers is outfitted with a bathroom, including a toilet and shower. The designers also included two outdoor courtyards and a satellite connection.

It may not look quite as ornate from the outside as some of the others, but a look inside this house will still impress. This project was built with four 40-foot containers for about $190,000. It includes a kitchen, bedrooms, a living room, and large picturesque windows. Even the landscaping is top-notch. 20ft Shipping Container Homes.

Canadian architect Keith Dewey took a cue from a magazine when designing the Zigloo Domestique Complete complex, one of the first shipping container homes in the entire country. He retrofitted eight 20-foot cargo units with a proper roof, outfitting the interior of the home soon afterward with a slew of sustainable materials intended to go hand-in-hand with the passive ventilation and the house’s modern design. He supposedly saved 70 trees by using the recycled materials, only to sell the house for a cool $728,000 a mere six years after completion.

Nestled amid the trees of the San Jose mountains and atop an old railway that now serves as an emergency escape route, David Fenster’s project on behalf of Modulus was intended to waste as little space as possible and leave minimal impact on the environment. The best shipping container homes https://www.prefabcontainerhomes.org/p/container-homes-made-from-seven-and.html residence makes use of six shipping containers spaced four feet apart from one another, with the second story crates stacked perpendicular to the bottom. Recycled redwood from the site makes up the stairwell and much of the furniture, while recycled plywood that was sealed and stained supplied much of the foundation for the flooring.

The exterior of most cargo containers isn’t exactly flattering. Fortunately, with the Manifesto House, James & Mau Arquitectura decided to incorporate a series of recycled wood pallets and shutters in order to help shade the structure in the summer and heat the metal walls in the winter. The open-space design utilizes three separate shipping containers, each placed in such a way as to allow ample room between the two outdoor patios lining the interior of the home. It also runs primarily on solar energy and features a cantilevered balcony on the top. “Eco-efficient” is one way to describe it. https://www.prefabcontainerhomes.org/p/container-homes-made-from-five.html

This unit was built on a budget of $60,000 as an art studio next to someone’s house. Shipping Container Home in Florida The studio was painted charcoal to match their house and blend in with the environment. It has two floors: one for painting and one to relax, reflect and work on smaller projects. The lower floor is built into the hillside.

A one-bedroom home that totals 2,300 square feet, the Hybrid House was built for a client in the media business who wanted a photo studio and large storage areas in a beautiful setting. EcoTech used five shipping containers and recycled steel to make it. It has a movable roof and a water-harvesting system that collects natural water because it’s in the desert. It actually surpasses California’s energy requirements by 50 percent. This is a large, eco-friendly, and nice-looking residence for the desert, which utilizes an open layout and solar-shaded windows to ward off the hot desert air. beautiful shipping container home Shadow Mountain cost over $300,000 to build.

This space hosts artists from all over the world and overlooks Loch Long in Scotland. Cove Park provides residencies for visual artists, craftspeople, writers, and musicians, and is only part of a larger complex for the artists in residence. shipping Container House in Denver, Colorado A layer of grass over the top of the containers helps insulate the residence, and sliding glass doors and porthole windows let in plenty of light.

Open-space architecture is seemingly becoming more and popular, but one rarely sees it in pre-fabricated homes. However, Adam Kalkin’s take on spatial living makes use of 12 shipping containers and a glazed glass structure to give the residence a direct connection to the great outdoors. Two steel staircases provide access to the upper bedrooms from the living space and kitchen below, providing welcome relief from any wind that may trickle in the house through the two garage-style doors. https://www.prefabcontainerhomes.org/p/container-homes-made-from-three.html

Touted as the Hampton’s first eco-container home, designer Andrew Anderson took more into account than merely the location of his luxury home. Whereas the four modules on the ground floor make up the residence’s four bedrooms, the top containers house the kitchen, living, and dining rooms. earthquake proof house The $1,395,000 home also sits amid the peaceful Napeague dunes a mere 600 feet from the ocean, while utilizing some of the most sustainable materials currently on the market. Counters made of 100-percent, post-consumer recycled fiber and bamboo never looked so good. best 3 bedroom shipping container homes.

This impressive home is made from 14 steel shipping containers. Located in northern Texas, the stunning structure is uniquely positioned to take in views from the surrounding townscape. The use of drastic overhangs and several porches shield windows from direct sunlight — without obstructing the view — while concrete floors, an exposed steel structure, masonry, and glass make up the primary building elements. The three-bedroom home also features four elevated, covered balconies and a large roof deck. It cost somewhere between $350,000 and $490,000 to build, making this impressive home more affordable than you might think. shipping container home mexico

The Quik house is an airy, modern structure in a forested region of central New Jersey, retrofitted with concrete and fir floors, stainless steel beams, and large glass panes that line nearly all sides. The main building is comprised of six shipping containers https://www.prefabcontainerhomes.org/p/container-homes-made-from-two-containers.html, the other just three, but the entire complex houses a large living space, multiple bedrooms, a bathroom, a walk-in closet, and more. A 12-foot island provides a beautiful view when cooking, too, while the large sofas allow you to lounge near the fireplace on frigid nights. The entire interior is even hidden behind drywall, meaning you’ll never be able to tell the structure is made of shipping containers unless you look behind the stairwell. Kaloorup Shipping Container House, Western Australia

The Price Street Project is a unique container home created by designer Julio Garcia to complement the lush greenery of Savannah, Georgia. The one-bedroom house https://www.prefabcontainerhomes.org/p/container-homes-made-from-one-container.htmlwas constructed from two offset, 40-foot shipping containers, and the space itself consists of a bedroom, bathroom, kitchen, and living room. Clerestory windows soften the interior with ample natural lighting, and an open wooden deck wraps around the entire building, helping to better mesh the harsh steel structure with the surrounding forest.

This (relatively) small home consists of three shipping containers https://www.prefabcontainerhomes.org/. With a budget between $100,000 and $500,000, the architects were able to construct an abode that capitalizes on both their creativity and ingenuity, without racking up exuberant building costs. The home has three levels, each level being 1,000 square feet. The ground level has a covered entrance, garage, and laundry room; the second level houses the living room and garden. The main best shipping container homes california level is surrounded by two glass facades, one facing the street and another facing the home’s small garden. The top level is described as a solarium, where you can take in views of the surrounding village and the natural landscape.
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Keeping the air flowing correctly through a wood-burning stove is essential for safe and efficient operation of the stove. Fresh air needs to enter the firebox to provide oxygen for the fire; as the fire burns, the smoke must be allowed to rise through the stove pipe, and exit through the chimney. To regulate air flow, there may be damper wood cooking stove https://woodcookingstoves devices built into the stove, flue, and stove pipes.

By opening or closing the dampers, air flow can be increased or decreased, which can fan the fire in the firebox, or "dampen" it by restricting airflow and reducing the flames. The dampers can usually be accessed by turning knobs or handles attached to the damper. Some stoves adjust their own airflow using mechanical or electronic thermostatic devices.

The highest heating efficiencies on closed appliances can be attained by controlling the various supplies of air to the stove (operating the air controls correctly). On modern stoves, owner's manuals provide documented procedures. Fully open air controls may lead to more heat being sent straight up the chimney rather than into the room (which reduces efficiency). The biggest problem with leaving the air controls fully open on many stoves is “overfiring”. Overfiring best wood cook stove is caused when too much heat is generated within the fire chamber, which will lead to warping, buckling and general damage to the stove and its internal components. Different stoves have different numbers and types of air controls.

Modern building techniques have created more airtight homes, forcing many stove manufacturers to design their stoves to permit outside air intakes. Outside air can improve the overall efficiency of the stove as a heater by drawing cold combustion air directly from the outside instead of drawing preheated air from the room that the stove is in. Manymodern stoves can optionally use an outside air intake. Many manufacturers supply the necessary parts in kit form (an Outside Air Kit, or OAK). When considering an outside best wood cook stove air kit, it is important to know that the air must come in from below the level of the stove. For example, a basement stove may not safely use an outside air kit. This is to prevent a reversal of venting in which very hot flue gasses are exhausted through a (usually PVC) air intake pipe, which could lead to a structure fire and/or hot flue gasses being released into the structure.

Firewood is usually measured in wood cooking stove English-speaking countries in a quantity called a cord, measuring 128 cubic feet (3.6 m3) (an orderly 'tightly packed' stack 4' high x 4' deep x 8' wide). Firewood may be purchased by the cord, or by a fraction of a cord. The term "face cord" is commonly used to describe varying volumes of wood. Nominally it means 4' x 8' x an unspecified third measurement, but the term is often used by unscrupulous sellers to mean varying amounts. Experienced firewood buyers and honest firewood sellers do not usually use the term "face cord".

When purchasing, cutting, or collecting firewood, it is good to be aware of the difference between hardwood and softwood. Both hardwood and softwood have similar energy contents by mass, but not by volume. In other words, a piece of hardwood would usually be heavier and have more available energy than best wood cook stove the same sized piece of softwood. Hardwoods, derived from trees such as oak and ash, may burn at a slower rate, resulting in sustained output. Many softwoods are derived from conifers, which are fast growing and may burn at a faster rate. This is one reason why softwood pellets (for pellet stoves) are popular.

The primary advantage of hardwoods wood cooking stove are that they tend to contain more potential energy than the same volume of a softwood, thus increasing the amount of potential heat that can be stacked into one stoveload. Hardwood tends to form and maintain a bed of hot coals, which release lower amounts of heat for a long time. Hardwoods are ideal for long, low burns, especially in stoves with a poor ability to sustain a low burn, or in mild weather when high heat output is not required.

Softwoods, in contrast, tend to burn hot and fast with little coaling. They may leave less ash than hardwoods. Softwoods are ideal for fast, hot burns. They produce excellent heat and do not fill the stove with coals, a frequent problem for those pushing their hardwood-fired stoves hard to get the maximum possible heat out of them.

Not all hardwoods have a higher potential energy content than all softwoods. Wood varies by species and even individual trees (a tree with many years of slow growth will have a higher BTU content than a tree of the same species and same size than a tree with a few years of rapid growth). Osage orange, also known as hedge, is perhaps the best wood cook stove highest-BTU wood that is common in North America.

Many softwoods will season (dry) much more quickly than many hardwoods. For example, pine that has been cut, split, stacked and topcovered will usually be ready to burn in one year; oak may be expected to take three years under the same conditions.

Softwood is often said to be dangerous to burn because it generates more dangerous creosote than hardwood. This myth is pervasive in the North American northeast, where both types of wood are commonly available. It is not common in the northwest, where most full-time wood burners burn pine and fir exclusively. A basic understanding of what creosote is and how it accumulates in your flue is all you need to rid yourself of this byproduct.

It is possible that this myth originated with old-fashioned stoves and fireplaces. These "appliances" did not require seasoned wood, and frequently did not receive it. As a result, they often experienced very low flue temperatures- usually in flues that were not insulated as modern flues are. The combination of low firebox temperatures due to high moisture content in the wood and low flue temperatures due to lack of insulation led to high levels of best wood cook stove creosote accumulation. Burning a wood that emits a lot of sparks (such as pine) in an old-fashioned fireplace or stove will lead to sparks going directly into the flue, which can lead to a dangerous chimney fire if the flue is coated in creosote.

Modern stoves which are operated wood cooking stove properly do not cause this high level of creosote accumulation. While different wood species do contain varying levels of volatile organic compounds, the difference is academic to the wood burner. All woods produce creosote. All woods will cause creosote accumulation if burned improperly. So-called dangerous woods such as pine are in fact safer than woods such as oak, as they will burn hotter and thus help keep flue temperatures up, and their fast seasoning will help ensure that novice wood burners are burning reasonably dry wood.

Dry wood produces more usable heat wood cooking stove than wet wood, since the energy used to evaporate the water from the wood is lost up the chimney. Freshly cut wood (known as green wood) has a high moisture content. Different wood species have different moisture contents, which also vary tree to tree. Burning fuel that is mostly water uses much of the combustion energy to evaporate the water. This results in low firebox temperatures and low flue temperatures.

Firewood with a moisture content below 20 per cent by weight can burn efficiently. This is the "free" moisture content absorbed in the wood fibers, and does not include the best wood cook stove chemically bound hydrogen and oxygen content. Moisture content can be reduced by outdoor air-drying ("seasoning"), for a period of several months in summer weather. Solar-powered or fuel-fired kilns can accelerate the drying process.[2]

The most common process of removing the excess moisture is called seasoning. Seasoning by air-drying the wood can take three years or more. Wood is dried in outdoor well-ventilated covered structures, or in a kiln.

All wood will release creosote vapors when burned. Modern cook stoves will burn the vapors, either via direct secondary combustion or via a catalyst. Very little, if any, creosote will escape a properly operating modern stove's secondary combustion.

Creosote that does escape may still not be harmful. It leaves the wood in gaseous form. It will not condense on surfaces above 250 degrees Fahrenheit (121 °C). Modern flues are insulated to help ensure that they do not fall below this temperature during normal stove operation. Creosote accumulation can be best wood cook stove dangerous, as it is flammable and burns hot. If a flue is coated with creosote and ignited, perhaps by a spark going up the flue, it can cause a serious chimney fire that can lead to a structure fire. This can be avoided by using modern stoves and flue standards, burning dry wood, keeping your fires hot enough to maintain flue temperatures of at least 250 degrees F (121 °C) at the top of the flue, and proper chimney cleaning as needed.

Multi-fuel stove designs are common in the United Kingdom, Ireland and Europe. They burn solid fuels only, including wood, wood pellets, coal and peat. They are typically made of steel or cast iron. Some models are also boiler stoves, with an attached water tank to provide hot water, and they can also be connected best wood cook stove to radiators to add heat to the house, though they are usually not as efficient as a dedicated wood boiler.

There are also stove models that can switch wood cooking stove from wood fuel to oil or gas sources that are installed in the house to supply heat to a separate water boiler.[3] Stoves that readily convert to either oil or gas in addition to wood fuel have been manufactured in North America and Europe since the early 20th century, and are still manufactured. In some models, the oil or gas may fuel the stove through a pipe connection leading to a "pot burner" in the rear of the firewood compartment in the stove.\

Multi-fuel stoves are versatile, but usually perform poorly compared to a stove that is designed to burn one specific fuel as well as possible.

Catalytic and non-catalytic stoves
Modern wood stoves universally have some method of secondary combustion to burn unburned gasses for greatly improved efficiency and emissions. One common method is via a catalyst.

A catalytic wood stove will re-burn the gasses wood cooking stove from the firebox in a catalyst- a matrix of steel or ceramic plated with a catalyst that allows combustion of these gasses at much lower temperatures than would ordinarily be possible. This is why among modern stoves, catalytic models tend to be much better at achieving low, even heat output, which is desirable in warmer weather.

Modern non-catalytic wood stoves will also reburn the gasses from the firebox, but require a much higher temperature for the secondary combustion. No catalyst is required. These models lose a large amount of efficiency at low burn rates, as they cannot maintain secondary combustion, but can be very efficient at higher temperatures that allow secondary combustion.

There also exist hybrid stoves that employ both catalytic and non-catalytic secondary combustion.

Stoves that do not employ any secondary combustion still exist, but are markedly less efficient than a modern stove due to their lack of secondary combustion.

Pyrolyzing stoves
In a conventional stove, when wood is added to a hot fire, a process of pyrolysis or destructive distillation begins. Gases (or volatiles) are evolved which are burned above the solid fuel. These are the two distinct processes going on in most solid fuel appliances. In obsolete stoves without secondary combustion, best wood cook stove air had to be wood cooking stove admitted both below and above the fuel to attempt to increase combustion and efficiency. The correct balance was difficult to achieve in practice, and many obsolete wood-burning stoves only admitted air above the fuel as a simplification. Often the volatiles were not completely burned, resulting in energy loss, chimney tarring, and atmospheric pollution.

To overcome this, the pyrolyzing stove was developed. The two processes go on in separate parts of the stove with separately controlled air supplies. Most stoves designed to burn wood pellets fall into this category.

Most pyrolyzing stoves regulate both fuel and air supply as opposed to controlling combustion of a mass of fuel by simple air regulation as in traditional stoves.

The pelleted fuel is typically introduced into the pyrolyzing chamber with a screw conveyor. This leads to better and more efficient combustion of the fuel.

The technology is not actually new; it has been wood cooking stove used for decades in industrial coal-fired boilers intended to burn coal with high volatile content.

Correct air flow and ventilation are also critical to efficient and safe wood burning. Specific requirements will be laid down by the stove manufacturer. Legal requirements for new installations in the UK can be found in Building Regulations Approved Document J, Section 2, Table 1 "Air Supply to solid fuel appliances".[4]

The safe operation of a wood-burning stove requires regular maintenance such as emptying ash pans (containers) beneath the wood grate. Routine cleaning of the stove pipes and chimney is also needed to prevent chimney fires. Creosote and soot gradually build up in stovepipes and chimneys. This could damage the chimney and spread fire to the surrounding structure, especially the roof. When soot blocks the airflow through the stove pipes or chimney, smoke can build up in the stove pipes and in the house.

The basic principle of controlling combustion by reducing the air supply means that very often there is a reduction zone/conditions within the stove. This means that carbon dioxide is often "reduced" to carbon monoxide, which is highly poisonous and must not be allowed to escape into the home. This can occur if the stove or chimney has not been cleaned or there is insufficient ventilation. Carbon monoxide detectors or alarms should always be installed according wood cooking stove install to manufacturers' recommendations where a wood stove is in use. Not all smoke detectors detect carbon monoxide.

Fuel accelerants such as coal, grease, oil, gasoline, kerosene, plastics, and so on, also must never be added to firewood in a wood stove, since the flames produced may easily overwhelm the wood compartment and stove pipes and create a house fire.

UK smoke control areas
Under the United Kingdom's Clean Air Act, local authorities may declare the whole or part of the district of the authority to be a smoke control area. It is an offence to emit smoke from a chimney of a building, from a furnace or best wood cook stove or from any fixed boiler if located in a designated smoke control area. It is also an offence to acquire an “unauthorized fuel” for use within a smoke control area unless it is used in an “exempt” appliance (“exempted” from the controls which generally apply in the smoke control area). The current maximum level of fine is ?1,000 for each offence.

In order to comply with the Clean Air Act in "smoke control areas", an exempt appliance or fuel must be used.[5]

A wood-burning stove, wood cooking stove (or wood burner or log burner in the UK) is a heating appliance capable of burning wood fuel and wood-derived biomass fuel, such as sawdust bricks. Generally the wood cooking stove consists of a solid metal (usually cast iron or steel) closed firebox, often lined by fire brick, and one or more air controls (which can be manually or automatically operated depending upon the stove). The first wood burning stove was patented in Strasbourg in 1557, two centuries before the Industrial Revolution, which would make iron an inexpensive and common material, so such wood cooking stove were high end consumer items and only gradually spread in use.

The stove is connected by beautiful wood cooking stove pipe to a suitable flue, which will fill with hot combustion gases once the fuel is ignited. The chimney or flue gases must be hotter than the outside temperature to ensure combustion gases are drawn out of the fire chamber and up the chimney.
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Keeping the air flowing correctly through a wood-burning stove is essential for safe and efficient operation of the stove. Fresh air needs to enter the firebox to provide oxygen for the fire; as the fire burns, the smoke must be allowed to rise through the stove pipe, and exit through the chimney. To regulate air flow, there may be damper wood cooking stove https://woodcookingstoves devices built into the stove, flue, and stove pipes.

By opening or closing the dampers, air flow can be increased or decreased, which can fan the fire in the firebox, or "dampen" it by restricting airflow and reducing the flames. The dampers can usually be accessed by turning knobs or handles attached to the damper. Some stoves adjust their own airflow using mechanical or electronic thermostatic devices.

The highest heating efficiencies on closed appliances can be attained by controlling the various supplies of air to the stove (operating the air controls correctly). On modern stoves, owner's manuals provide documented procedures. Fully open air controls may lead to more heat being sent straight up the chimney rather than into the room (which reduces efficiency). The biggest problem with leaving the air controls fully open on many stoves is “overfiring”. Overfiring best wood cook stove is caused when too much heat is generated within the fire chamber, which will lead to warping, buckling and general damage to the stove and its internal components. Different stoves have different numbers and types of air controls.

Modern building techniques have created more airtight homes, forcing many stove manufacturers to design their stoves to permit outside air intakes. Outside air can improve the overall efficiency of the stove as a heater by drawing cold combustion air directly from the outside instead of drawing preheated air from the room that the stove is in. Manymodern stoves can optionally use an outside air intake. Many manufacturers supply the necessary parts in kit form (an Outside Air Kit, or OAK). When considering an outside best wood cook stove air kit, it is important to know that the air must come in from below the level of the stove. For example, a basement stove may not safely use an outside air kit. This is to prevent a reversal of venting in which very hot flue gasses are exhausted through a (usually PVC) air intake pipe, which could lead to a structure fire and/or hot flue gasses being released into the structure.

Firewood is usually measured in wood cooking stove English-speaking countries in a quantity called a cord, measuring 128 cubic feet (3.6 m3) (an orderly 'tightly packed' stack 4' high x 4' deep x 8' wide). Firewood may be purchased by the cord, or by a fraction of a cord. The term "face cord" is commonly used to describe varying volumes of wood. Nominally it means 4' x 8' x an unspecified third measurement, but the term is often used by unscrupulous sellers to mean varying amounts. Experienced firewood buyers and honest firewood sellers do not usually use the term "face cord".

When purchasing, cutting, or collecting firewood, it is good to be aware of the difference between hardwood and softwood. Both hardwood and softwood have similar energy contents by mass, but not by volume. In other words, a piece of hardwood would usually be heavier and have more available energy than best wood cook stove the same sized piece of softwood. Hardwoods, derived from trees such as oak and ash, may burn at a slower rate, resulting in sustained output. Many softwoods are derived from conifers, which are fast growing and may burn at a faster rate. This is one reason why softwood pellets (for pellet stoves) are popular.

The primary advantage of hardwoods wood cooking stove are that they tend to contain more potential energy than the same volume of a softwood, thus increasing the amount of potential heat that can be stacked into one stoveload. Hardwood tends to form and maintain a bed of hot coals, which release lower amounts of heat for a long time. Hardwoods are ideal for long, low burns, especially in stoves with a poor ability to sustain a low burn, or in mild weather when high heat output is not required.

Softwoods, in contrast, tend to burn hot and fast with little coaling. They may leave less ash than hardwoods. Softwoods are ideal for fast, hot burns. They produce excellent heat and do not fill the stove with coals, a frequent problem for those pushing their hardwood-fired stoves hard to get the maximum possible heat out of them.

Not all hardwoods have a higher potential energy content than all softwoods. Wood varies by species and even individual trees (a tree with many years of slow growth will have a higher BTU content than a tree of the same species and same size than a tree with a few years of rapid growth). Osage orange, also known as hedge, is perhaps the best wood cook stove highest-BTU wood that is common in North America.

Many softwoods will season (dry) much more quickly than many hardwoods. For example, pine that has been cut, split, stacked and topcovered will usually be ready to burn in one year; oak may be expected to take three years under the same conditions.

Softwood is often said to be dangerous to burn because it generates more dangerous creosote than hardwood. This myth is pervasive in the North American northeast, where both types of wood are commonly available. It is not common in the northwest, where most full-time wood burners burn pine and fir exclusively. A basic understanding of what creosote is and how it accumulates in your flue is all you need to rid yourself of this byproduct.

It is possible that this myth originated with old-fashioned stoves and fireplaces. These "appliances" did not require seasoned wood, and frequently did not receive it. As a result, they often experienced very low flue temperatures- usually in flues that were not insulated as modern flues are. The combination of low firebox temperatures due to high moisture content in the wood and low flue temperatures due to lack of insulation led to high levels of best wood cook stove creosote accumulation. Burning a wood that emits a lot of sparks (such as pine) in an old-fashioned fireplace or stove will lead to sparks going directly into the flue, which can lead to a dangerous chimney fire if the flue is coated in creosote.

Modern stoves which are operated wood cooking stove properly do not cause this high level of creosote accumulation. While different wood species do contain varying levels of volatile organic compounds, the difference is academic to the wood burner. All woods produce creosote. All woods will cause creosote accumulation if burned improperly. So-called dangerous woods such as pine are in fact safer than woods such as oak, as they will burn hotter and thus help keep flue temperatures up, and their fast seasoning will help ensure that novice wood burners are burning reasonably dry wood.

Dry wood produces more usable heat wood cooking stove than wet wood, since the energy used to evaporate the water from the wood is lost up the chimney. Freshly cut wood (known as green wood) has a high moisture content. Different wood species have different moisture contents, which also vary tree to tree. Burning fuel that is mostly water uses much of the combustion energy to evaporate the water. This results in low firebox temperatures and low flue temperatures.

Firewood with a moisture content below 20 per cent by weight can burn efficiently. This is the "free" moisture content absorbed in the wood fibers, and does not include the best wood cook stove chemically bound hydrogen and oxygen content. Moisture content can be reduced by outdoor air-drying ("seasoning"), for a period of several months in summer weather. Solar-powered or fuel-fired kilns can accelerate the drying process.[2]

The most common process of removing the excess moisture is called seasoning. Seasoning by air-drying the wood can take three years or more. Wood is dried in outdoor well-ventilated covered structures, or in a kiln.

All wood will release creosote vapors when burned. Modern cook stoves will burn the vapors, either via direct secondary combustion or via a catalyst. Very little, if any, creosote will escape a properly operating modern stove's secondary combustion.

Creosote that does escape may still not be harmful. It leaves the wood in gaseous form. It will not condense on surfaces above 250 degrees Fahrenheit (121 °C). Modern flues are insulated to help ensure that they do not fall below this temperature during normal stove operation. Creosote accumulation can be best wood cook stove dangerous, as it is flammable and burns hot. If a flue is coated with creosote and ignited, perhaps by a spark going up the flue, it can cause a serious chimney fire that can lead to a structure fire. This can be avoided by using modern stoves and flue standards, burning dry wood, keeping your fires hot enough to maintain flue temperatures of at least 250 degrees F (121 °C) at the top of the flue, and proper chimney cleaning as needed.

Multi-fuel stove designs are common in the United Kingdom, Ireland and Europe. They burn solid fuels only, including wood, wood pellets, coal and peat. They are typically made of steel or cast iron. Some models are also boiler stoves, with an attached water tank to provide hot water, and they can also be connected best wood cook stove to radiators to add heat to the house, though they are usually not as efficient as a dedicated wood boiler.

There are also stove models that can switch wood cooking stove from wood fuel to oil or gas sources that are installed in the house to supply heat to a separate water boiler.[3] Stoves that readily convert to either oil or gas in addition to wood fuel have been manufactured in North America and Europe since the early 20th century, and are still manufactured. In some models, the oil or gas may fuel the stove through a pipe connection leading to a "pot burner" in the rear of the firewood compartment in the stove.\

Multi-fuel stoves are versatile, but usually perform poorly compared to a stove that is designed to burn one specific fuel as well as possible.

Catalytic and non-catalytic stoves
Modern wood stoves universally have some method of secondary combustion to burn unburned gasses for greatly improved efficiency and emissions. One common method is via a catalyst.

A catalytic wood stove will re-burn the gasses wood cooking stove from the firebox in a catalyst- a matrix of steel or ceramic plated with a catalyst that allows combustion of these gasses at much lower temperatures than would ordinarily be possible. This is why among modern stoves, catalytic models tend to be much better at achieving low, even heat output, which is desirable in warmer weather.

Modern non-catalytic wood stoves will also reburn the gasses from the firebox, but require a much higher temperature for the secondary combustion. No catalyst is required. These models lose a large amount of efficiency at low burn rates, as they cannot maintain secondary combustion, but can be very efficient at higher temperatures that allow secondary combustion.

There also exist hybrid stoves that employ both catalytic and non-catalytic secondary combustion.

Stoves that do not employ any secondary combustion still exist, but are markedly less efficient than a modern stove due to their lack of secondary combustion.

Pyrolyzing stoves
In a conventional stove, when wood is added to a hot fire, a process of pyrolysis or destructive distillation begins. Gases (or volatiles) are evolved which are burned above the solid fuel. These are the two distinct processes going on in most solid fuel appliances. In obsolete stoves without secondary combustion, best wood cook stove air had to be wood cooking stove admitted both below and above the fuel to attempt to increase combustion and efficiency. The correct balance was difficult to achieve in practice, and many obsolete wood-burning stoves only admitted air above the fuel as a simplification. Often the volatiles were not completely burned, resulting in energy loss, chimney tarring, and atmospheric pollution.

To overcome this, the pyrolyzing stove was developed. The two processes go on in separate parts of the stove with separately controlled air supplies. Most stoves designed to burn wood pellets fall into this category.

Most pyrolyzing stoves regulate both fuel and air supply as opposed to controlling combustion of a mass of fuel by simple air regulation as in traditional stoves.

The pelleted fuel is typically introduced into the pyrolyzing chamber with a screw conveyor. This leads to better and more efficient combustion of the fuel.

The technology is not actually new; it has been wood cooking stove used for decades in industrial coal-fired boilers intended to burn coal with high volatile content.

Correct air flow and ventilation are also critical to efficient and safe wood burning. Specific requirements will be laid down by the stove manufacturer. Legal requirements for new installations in the UK can be found in Building Regulations Approved Document J, Section 2, Table 1 "Air Supply to solid fuel appliances".[4]

The safe operation of a wood-burning stove requires regular maintenance such as emptying ash pans (containers) beneath the wood grate. Routine cleaning of the stove pipes and chimney is also needed to prevent chimney fires. Creosote and soot gradually build up in stovepipes and chimneys. This could damage the chimney and spread fire to the surrounding structure, especially the roof. When soot blocks the airflow through the stove pipes or chimney, smoke can build up in the stove pipes and in the house.

The basic principle of controlling combustion by reducing the air supply means that very often there is a reduction zone/conditions within the stove. This means that carbon dioxide is often "reduced" to carbon monoxide, which is highly poisonous and must not be allowed to escape into the home. This can occur if the stove or chimney has not been cleaned or there is insufficient ventilation. Carbon monoxide detectors or alarms should always be installed according wood cooking stove install to manufacturers' recommendations where a wood stove is in use. Not all smoke detectors detect carbon monoxide.

Fuel accelerants such as coal, grease, oil, gasoline, kerosene, plastics, and so on, also must never be added to firewood in a wood stove, since the flames produced may easily overwhelm the wood compartment and stove pipes and create a house fire.

UK smoke control areas
Under the United Kingdom's Clean Air Act, local authorities may declare the whole or part of the district of the authority to be a smoke control area. It is an offence to emit smoke from a chimney of a building, from a furnace or best wood cook stove or from any fixed boiler if located in a designated smoke control area. It is also an offence to acquire an “unauthorized fuel” for use within a smoke control area unless it is used in an “exempt” appliance (“exempted” from the controls which generally apply in the smoke control area). The current maximum level of fine is ?1,000 for each offence.

In order to comply with the Clean Air Act in "smoke control areas", an exempt appliance or fuel must be used.[5]

A wood-burning stove, wood cooking stove (or wood burner or log burner in the UK) is a heating appliance capable of burning wood fuel and wood-derived biomass fuel, such as sawdust bricks. Generally the wood cooking stove consists of a solid metal (usually cast iron or steel) closed firebox, often lined by fire brick, and one or more air controls (which can be manually or automatically operated depending upon the stove). The first wood burning stove was patented in Strasbourg in 1557, two centuries before the Industrial Revolution, which would make iron an inexpensive and common material, so such wood cooking stove were high end consumer items and only gradually spread in use.

The stove is connected by beautiful wood cooking stove pipe to a suitable flue, which will fill with hot combustion gases once the fuel is ignited. The chimney or flue gases must be hotter than the outside temperature to ensure combustion gases are drawn out of the fire chamber and up the chimney.
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Re: WiseDeposit - wisedeposit.com

Сообщение beautifulhomes » Пт мар 22, 2019 7:09 pm

самые красивые дома в мире https://ru.beautiful-houses.net/ — тра­ди­ци­он­ное, по­строй­ка или при­род­ное ук­ры­тие, при­спо­соб­лен­ное для оби­та­ния че­ло­ве­ка. По­ми­мо прак­тической функции, самые красивые дома в мире вы­пол­ня­ет сим­во­лическую роль - во­пло­ща­ет идею струк­ту­ри­ро­ван­но­го че­ло­ве­че­ско­го куль­тур­но­го про­стран­ст­ва, защищённого от внеш­не­го хао­са, осу­ще­ст­в­ля­ет связь с пред­ше­ст­вую­щи­ми по­ко­ле­ния­ми се­мьи или ро­да. В этом смыс­ле под самые красивые дома в мирем подразумевается не толь­ко собст­вен­но жи­лая по­строй­ка, но и дом в ши­ро­ком по­ни­ма­нии сло­ва, вклю­чая поселение, стра­ну, ойкумену в це­лом[1].

Под самые красивые дома в мирем понимаются квартирные дома постоянного проживания, общежития для проживания во время работы или учёбы, гостиницы для кратковременного проживания. К квартирным домам относится дома гостиничного типа и дома-интернаты для престарелых[2].

Внешний вид, материал для стен и внутреннее строение самые красивые дома в мире весьма разнообразны (материалом может быть дерево, брезент, камень, бетон, земля, кирпич, сталь, и даже стекло, кость или снег).

Люди используют самые красивые дома в мире со времён первобытнообщинного строя. Первоначально это были различные пещеры, гроты и пр. Поскольку естественные обиталища не могли удовлетворить всем нуждам древних людей, началось их обустройство. Применялось мощение жилых площадок камнем (например, древняя стоянка Ла Ферраси, пещера Эль-Кастильо), каменные ограды (Стоянка Ильская в Краснодарском крае), простые навалы камней, также выполнявшие функцию оград (пещера Волчий грот в Крыму). Древнейшими самые красивые дома в миреами людей, обитавших на равнинах, служили землянки и шалаши.

Изменения климата, похолодания, вынуждали людей всё активнее заниматься строительством самые красивые дома в мире. При первоначальном отсутствии специальных инструментов, рабочим материалом служили деревья, а также кости животных. Одно из старейших построенных самые красивые дома в мире в мире датируется приблизительно 10-м тысячелетием до н. э. и было сделано из костей мамонта; находка была сделана в СССР в селе Межирич, недалеко от Киева, нынешняя Украина. Вероятно, самые красивые дома в мире было покрыто шкурами мамонта. самые красивые дома в мире было обнаружено в 1965 году крестьянином, рывшим погреб, на глубине 2 м[6][7].

самые красивые дома в мире https://ru.beautiful-houses.net/ а в современном смысле стали строить, видимо, со времён неолита, но в разных местах и в разных культурах самые красивые дома в миреное строительство началось в разное время. Так, самые ранние известные неолитические самые красивые дома в миреа Древнего Египта относятся к X тыс.л. до н.э., а в Греции найдены постройки, созданные около 6000 лет до н. э. самые красивые дома в миреа в северных регионах, с их суровыми зимами, самые красивые дома в мире представляет собой одно круглое или квадратное помещение с местом для очага посередине и отверстием для выхода дыма наверху. Иногда в таком самые красивые дома в мире люди ночевали вместе со своими домашними животными. В болгарском городе Стара-Загора есть музей «Неолитические самые красивые дома в миреа» (болг.)русск., где представлены различные предметы домашней утвари той эпохи: первые печи для выпечки хлеба, ручные мельницы, керамические сосуды и другие[8].


Коническая берестяная юрта алтайских тюрков
После перехода от кочевого к оседлому образу жизни самые красивые дома в миреа постепенно изменяются. Внешний вид, размер и расположение самые красивые дома в мире отличается большим разнообразием и зависит как от национальных и культурных особенностей региона, так и от социального положения его хозяина. В сухих и безлесных районах строились глинобитные, кирпичные и саманные здания. В богатых лесом районах Европы и Азии возводили срубные деревянные дома. Первоначально такие дома состояли из одного помещения, затем стали строить здания, состоящие из нескольких комнат, имевших разное назначение: например спальня, кухня, гостиная и т. п.

В IX тысячелетии до н. э. появляются и первые каменные дома. К числу древнейших поселений, в которых археологи обнаружили каменные здания жилого назначения, относятся Чайоню в юго-восточной Анатолии и Иерихон в Палестине[9].


Реконструкция свайных самые красивые дома в мире периода позднего неолита
В период Бронзового века одними из распространённых видов самые красивые дома в мире в Европе по-прежнему остаются вырытые в земле, чаще круглые в плане обиталища, перекрытые конусовидными крышами. Вместе с ними распространены наземные дома, стены которых строились из камня или были плетёными с обмазкой глиной. На стыке неолита и Бронзового века распространяется и свайное самые красивые дома в мире, причём область его применения довольно широка — от итальянских террамар и сооружений на озёрах в окрестностях Альп (англ. Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps) до свайных сооружений в Океании и домов даяков на Калимантане.

Распространение вооружённых конфликтов ведёт к возникновению укреплённых поселений (поселение Березняки, Ярославская область, городище Тушемля, Смоленская область)[10].

Некоторыми видами самые красивые дома в мире (например за?мками) в определённые исторические периоды могли владеть только люди, имевшие соответствующее социальное положение (например дворяне). Изначально, когда преобладающим видом деятельности было сельское хозяйство, дома обычно строились небольшими группами (села, поселки, деревни). Затем с развитием ремесел постепенно появились города.

Как и во многих прочих местах, первые самые красивые дома в миреа на территории Египта представляли собой ямы, пещеры, различные навесы из шкур животных, сооружения с использованием плетёных конструкций. Позднее в дело стал использоваться кирпич, сушёный на солнце. Одним из крупнейших и древнейших поселений, где использовался кирпич, является поселение Меримде Бени-Салама, возникшее в Додинастический период. самые красивые дома в миреа из такого кирпича были овальные, пол глинобитный, перекрытие делалось из тростника. Сооружения подобного типа сохранились и в дальнейшем — в период Раннего царства и позднее. Более состоятельные люди, например, жрецы могли позволить себе жильё из брёвен. Дворцы фараонов могли представлять собой внушительные сооружения из кирпича[11].

Жилые сооружения Древней Греции
О древнейших жилых постройках имеется довольно мало археологических сведений. Отчасти представление о самые красивые дома в мире можно составить по описаниям в гомеровских поэмах. самые красивые дома в мире было тесно связано с земледелием; главной частью дома являлся двор. Также в комплекс дома могли входить сад, огород, баня, купальня. Отдельно выделялась женская половина (гинекей), которая могла располагаться на втором этаже. https://ru.beautiful-houses.net/

Городские самые красивые дома в миреа классического периода определялись планировочной структурой города. Деление на прямоугольные кварталы обуславливало и прямоугольную форму зданий, причём все здания зачастую имели схожий размер. В этот период складывается так называемый «пастадный» тип жилого дома. В связи с жарким климатом основные помещения располагались на северной стороне дома. Окна и двери помещений выходили во внутренний дворик, там же находилась и лестница на второй этаж. Помещения делились функционально: андрон (мужская комната) предназначался для пиров, ойкос (помещение с очагом) и пр. Здания складывались из необожжённого кирпича, перекрытия выполнялись деревянными, крыша делалась из черепицы или земляная.

Развитие жилых зданий в эллинистический период испытало влияние имущественного расслоения. Более состоятельные жители могли себе позволить иметь дома размером в полквартала или больше. Главенствующим типом самые красивые дома в миреа становится перистильный дом, который часто получался перестройкой из пастадного[12].

Жилые сооружения Древнего Рима

Выраженное социальное расслоение в Римской империи обусловило и разные типы самые красивые дома в мире для людей разных социальных групп. Рост городского населения, весьма значительную часть которого составляли малоимущие, послужил появлению такого типа жилого здания, как инсула. Инсула представляла собой многоэтажный дом, в котором помещения для проживания сдавались внаём. красивые бассейны аще всего самые красивые дома в мире представляло собой лавку или же какую-либо мастерскую, над которой надстраивался дополнительный или несколько дополнительных этажей для проживания. Возможность подобной надстройки стала возможной благодаря развитию строительной техники в империи, в частности, появлению римского бетона, совершенствованию сводчатых перекрытий. Однако само качество конструкций зачастую было весьма низким, что приводило к их обрушению. В инсулах отсутствовал водопровод и канализация. Высота инсул могла достигать 5-6 этажей.


«Дом Веттиев», Помпеи. Внутренний дворик
самые красивые дома в миреа более состоятельных римлян представляли собой атриумно-перистильные дома (домусы). Постепенная модификация, появление дополнительных этажей, заложило основу для появления в будущем многоквартирных домов-колодцев с внутренним двором в центре. Атриумно-перистильные дома, помимо собственно атриума и перистиля, включали множество других помещений различной функциональности, беспорядочная пристройка которых в некоторых случаях приводила к потере восприятия самые красивые дома в миреа как единого целого. https://ru.beautiful-houses.net/

Отдельным видом самые красивые дома в миреа были императорские резиденции. Первоначально, вероятнее всего, представлявшие тип домуса, в дальнейшем они превратились в многокорпусные ансамбли. В их состав входили как сами дворцы, так и тронные залы, базилики, бассейны, стадиумы, ларарии, жилые корпуса и прочие сооружения.

Ещё одним видом самые красивые дома в миреа римской знати были виллы (англ. Roman villa). Вилла служила загородным домом для проживания. Появление калориферного отопления позволило им стать местом постоянного проживания в течение круглого года. Виллы были очень разнообразны, могли быть как единым сооружением, так и разбитыми функционально на отдельные здания. Зачастую располагавшиеся на островах и в бухтах, виллы включали в себя и причальные сооружения. Крупнейшие виллы представляли собой обширную архитектурно-ландшафтную композицию с единым замыслом[13].

О самых ранних жилых домах Красивые дома рустик и интерьер в стиле рустики их интерьерах известно мало, но удаётся отследить их историю до простейших убежищ. Древнеримский архитектор Витрувий полагал, что первым архитектурным решением был шалаш из веток, покрываемых глиняным раствором, — примитивная хижина (англ.)русск.[15]. Позднее Филипп Табор (Philip Tabor) отмечал, что голландские дома XVII века послужили основой современной архитектуры[16]:
Насколько мы понимаем идею жилого дома, дом домов — это Нидерланды. В первые три четверти XVII столетия эта идея «кристаллизовалась». Как раз в те времена у голландцев было беспрецедентное накопление капитала, и они смогли выделить такие средства на [благоустройство] местного пространства.

В Средние века большинство капитальных самые красивые дома в мире были в усадьбах, где осуществлялись различные виды деятельности и происходили различные события. В тех домах обитало множество людей, включая членов семьи, родственников, работников, слуг и гостей[15]. Их образ жизни был в значительной мере коммунальным, и устройство самые красивые дома в миреа тому соответствовало. В Большом зале (англ.)русск. обычно все вместе обедали и проводили собрания, а большая светлица служила общей спальней[17].

Смежные комнаты самые красивые дома в мире
Строительство домов со смежными комнатами получило развитие в итальянских дворцах XV и XVI века, в эпоху архитектурного Возрождения. В отличие от помещений усадебного дома, самые красивые спальни в мире большинство комнат дворца не имели заранее определённого предназначения, но почти каждая из них имела несколько дверей, ведущих во все соседние. Робин Эванс (1944—1993) (англ. Robin Evans) описывал такую планировку как «матрицу из отдельных, но при этом старательно соединённых палат»Красивый Дизайн бутик-отеля с уютным внутренним двориком. Это позволяло обитателям такого дворца свободно ходить по всему зданию из комнаты в комнату, порой нарушая границы приватности. «Вообще перемещаться по такому зданию было возможно только так — переходя из комнаты в комнату, а из той опять в соседнюю. Лестницы и коридоры, если они и были, вели из только одного помещения в другое и никогда не образовывали „общей дороги“. Несмотря на то, что стены комнат разграничивали самые красивые ванные в мире отдельные пространства, вилла в целом имела открытую планировку, относительно проницаемую для множества жильцов такого строения»[18]. Открытая планировка побуждала жильцов к социальности и связности[15].

Коридор

Один из ранних примеров появления коридора мы находим в Бофор-Хауз (англ. Beaufort House), построенном в 1597 году в лондонском Челси по проекту английского архитектора Джона Зопа (англ. John Thorpe), который на своих чертежах сделал надпись: «Длинный проход через всё. Красивые деревянные дома из бревен» (англ. A Long Entry through all)[19]. В этом доме Красивые деревянные дома из бревен, бревенчатые срубы уже можно было из каждой комнаты выходить на улицу через общий коридор и общую входную дверь, а не через смежные комнаты. Для того времени такое архитектурное решение было революционным. Английский архитектор Роджер Пратт (англ. Roger Pratt) писал, что «наличие посередине общего прохода, идущего по всей длине дома, Красивые деревянные дома из бревен, позволяло людям не беспокоить друг друга постоянными проходами через смежные комнаты»[20]. В XVII веке расслоение общества и неравенство между людьми усилилось, красивые старинные дома германии общественные классы и сословия ещё чётче оформились и обособились. Это не могло не повлиять на архитектуру. В планировке богатых домов того времени было заложено довольно строгое разделение внутреннего пространства между слугами и высшим классом; обычный слуга не имел права выходить за пределы отведённой ему территории, тем более в присутствии гостей хозяина или других посторонних[20]. Это же социальное разделение между бедными и богатыми привело к тому, что в XIX века в большинстве британских городских домов были устроены красивые бассейны, а не смежные комнаты.

Социолог Уитольд Рубцински (англ. Witold Rybczynski) отметил, что тогда началось «разделение самые красивые дома в мире а на пространства дневного и ночного использования, на формальные и неформальные места»[21]. Обычная комната в то время уже имела единственную дверь, ведущую в общий коридор, и окончательно превратилась из общего в сугубо частное специализированное пространство https://ru.beautiful-houses.net/

В древности и в Средние Века большинство людей трудились там же, где и жили: в своём доме, либо рядом с ним: на участке земли, скотном дворе, в мастерской или в торговой лавке, самые красивые кухни в мире. В Голландии XVII века началось всё большее отделение домашнего хозяйства от работы, ремесла или бизнеса, кухни, вызванное промышленной революцией, созданием крупных фабрик и вытеснением мелких ремесленников. В отличие от огромных домов английского Ренессанса, в Голландии в «золотом» XVII веке строили дома значительно меньшей площади, в каждом из которых проживало максимум четыре-пять человек https://ru.beautiful-houses.net/ У голландцев того времени было принято надеяться на себя, полагаться на собственные силы, в том числе обходиться без помощи прислуги в домашнем хозяйстве. Потому жилые дома проектировались малогабаритными: так, чтобы дом мог обслуживаться силами проживающей в нём семьи. Красивые старинные дома Франции Голландские самые красивые дома в мире того времени превратились в комфортные убежища, предназначенные только для отдыха и общения в кругу семьи и близких друзей, и уже очень походили на современные. Приватность была также важна; потому, несмотря на компактность голландского дома, в нём также делался общий коридор, а не смежные комнаты. К концу XVII века процесс трансформации голландских жилых домов в близкий к современному вид был завершён[15].
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